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PAIN MEDICINE 2022, will be organized around the theme “Relieving Pain, Restoring Function, Renewing Hope Venue: Holiday Inn Singapore Atrium, Singapore”

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Pain is a signal in your nervous system that something may be wrong. It is an unpleasant feeling, such as a prick, tingle, sting, burn, or ache. Pain may be sharp or dull. It may come and go, or it may be constant treatment depends on the cause and type of pain. There are drug treatments, including pain relievers. There are also non-drug treatments, such as acupuncture, physical therapy, and sometimes surgery.



Pain relievers are medicines that reduce or relieve headaches, sore muscles, arthritis, or other aches and pains. There are many different pain medicines, and each one has advantages and risks. Some types of pain respond better to certain medicines than others. Each person may also have a slightly different response to a pain reliever.



 



While acute pain is a normal sensation triggered in the nervous system to alert you to possible injury and the need to take care of yourself, chronic pain is different. Chronic pain persists. Pain signals keep firing in the nervous system for weeks, months, even years. There may have been an initial mishap sprained back, serious infection, or there may be an on-going cause of pain arthritis, cancer, ear infection, but some people suffer chronic pain in the absence of any past injury or evidence of body damage.



A person may have two or more co-existing chronic pain conditions.  Such conditions can include chronic fatigue syndrome, endometriosis, fibromyalgia, inflammatory bowel disease, interstitial cystitis, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, vulvodynia. It is not known whether these disorders share a common cause.



 



The various neuropathic pains can be difficult to treat. However, with careful diagnosis and often a combination of methods of treatments, there is an excellent chance of improving the pain and return of function. Medications are a mainstay of treatment of neuropathic pain.



Most pain information is filtered out by the central nervous system, usually at the level of the spinal cord. Many medications to treat neuropathic pain operate on this filtering process. The types of medications used for neuropathic pain include antidepressants, which influence the amount of serotonin or norepinephrine, and anti-seizure medications, which act on various neurotransmitters, such as GABA and glycine. One of the most powerful tools in treating neuropathic pain is the spinal cord stimulator, which delivers tiny amounts of electrical energy directly onto the spine. Stimulation works by interrupting inappropriate pain information being sent up to the brain. It also creates a tingling in the pain extremity, which masks pain.



 



Headache is our most common form of pain and a major reason cited for days missed at work or school as well as visits to the doctor.  The International Classification of Headache Disorders, published by the International Headache Society, is used to classify more than 150 types of primary and secondary headache disorders. Primary headaches occur independently and are not caused by another medical condition. 




  • Primary headaches


  • Cluster headaches


  • Tension headaches


  • Secondary headaches.



Migraines are severe, recurring, and painful headaches. They can be preceded or accompanied by sensory warning signs and other symptoms. The extreme pain that migraines cause can last for hours or even days. According to the American Migraine Association, they affect 36 million Americans, or approximately 12 percent of the population. Migraines can follow an aura of sensory disturbances followed by a severe headache that often appears on one side of the head. They tend to affect people aged 15 to 55 years.



 



To a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized. Specialization was common among Roman physicians. The particular system of modern medical specialties evolved gradually during the 19th century. The particular subdivision of the practice of medicine into various specialties varies from country to country and is somewhat arbitrary. Pain management specialists are most commonly found in the following disciplines: Physiatry (also called Physical medicine and rehabilitation), Anesthesiology, Interventional radiology, Physical therapy. Specialists in psychology, psychiatry, behavioral science, and other areas may also play an important role in a comprehensive pain management program.



 



Orofacial pain disorders are highly prevalent and debilitating conditions involving the head, face, and neck. These conditions represent a challenge to the clinician since the orofacial region is complex and therefore, pain can arise from many sources. The clinician needs to have solid knowledge of the pain conditions that arise from these structures for proper diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach of management is strongly recommended.



 



Neuropathic pain is often described as a shooting or burning pain. It can go away on its own but is often chronic. Sometimes it is unrelenting and severe, and sometimes it comes and goes. It often is the result of nerve damage or a malfunctioning nervous system. The impact of nerve damage is a change in nerve function both at the site of the injury and areas around it.



Neuro-orthopedic service offers the latest advances in diagnosis and treatment to patients whose arms or legs are impaired by brain injury, stroke, anoxia, central nervous disorders, or orthopedic conditions.



Arthritis means joint inflammation, but the term is used to describe around 200 conditions that affect joints, the tissues that surround the joint, and other connective tissue. It is a rheumatic condition. The most common form of arthritis is osteoarthritis. Other common rheumatic conditions related to arthritis include gout, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).



Inflammation is a defense mechanism in the body. The immune system recognizes damaged cells, irritants, and pathogens, and it begins the healing process. When something harmful or irritating affects a part of our body, there is a biological response to try to remove it. The signs and symptoms of inflammation can be uncomfortable but are a show that the body is trying to heal itself.



Cancer pain takes many forms. It can be dull, achy, sharp or burning. It can be constant, intermittent, mild, moderate or severe. How much pain you feel depends on a number of factors, including the type of cancer you have, how advanced it is, where it's situated and your pain tolerance.




  • Pain from the tumor


  • Chemotherapy


  • Radiotherapy


  • Post-operative pain


  • Nerve blocks/ implanted pump



 



Differently from the adult patients, in Pediatric age it is more difficult to assess and treat efficaciously the pain and often this symptom is undertreated or not treated. In children, selection of appropriate pain assessment tools should consider age, cognitive level and the presence of eventual disability, type of pain and the situation in which it is occurring. 




  • Neonatal Nursing


  • Pediatric Infectious Disease


  • Pediatric Critical Care


  • Pediatric Pulmonology


  • Pediatric Oncology


  • Pediatric Emergency Medicine



 



The last two decades have seen the emergence of significant evidence that has altered certain aspects of the management of acute pancreatitis. While most cases of acute pancreatitis are mild, the challenge remains in managing the severe cases and the complications associated with acute pancreatitis. Gallstones are still the most common cause with epidemiological trends indicating a rising incidence. The surgical management of acute gallstone pancreatitis has evolved. In this article, we revisit and review the methods in diagnosing acute pancreatitis. We present the evidence for the supportive management of the condition, and then discuss the management of acute gallstone pancreatitis. Based on the evidence, our local institutional pathways, and clinical experience, we have produced an outline to guide clinicians in the management of acute gallstone pancreatitis



The current evidence supports infusions of local anesthetics at the surgical site, continuous peripheral nerve blocks, and neuraxial analgesia for major thoracic and abdominal procedures. Ultrasound guidance can improve the performance of the blocks and different patient outcomes, although the incidence of peripheral nerve damage is not decreased. For chronic pain, the best available evidence is on nerve blocks for the diagnosis of facet joint pain. Further research is needed to validate diagnostic nerve blocks for other indications. Therapeutic blocks with only local anesthetics (greater occipital nerve and sphenopalatine ganglion) are effective in headache. A possible mechanism is modulation of central nociceptive pathways. Therapeutic nerve blocks for other indications are mostly supported by retrospective studies and case series.



 



Physiotherapy can be defined as a treatment method that focuses on the science of movement and helps people to restore, maintain and maximize their physical strength, function, motion and overall well-being by addressing the underlying physical issues.



 



NSAIDs are more than just pain relievers. They also help reduce inflammation and lower fevers. They prevent blood from clotting, which is good in some cases but not so beneficial in others. For example, because they reduce clotting action, some NSAIDS, especially aspirin, may have a protective effect against heart disease. However, you may bruise more easily. Analgesics are medications designed to relieve the symptoms of pain.



 



Opioids are medically prescribed for two main reasons pain management and the treatment of heroin and other opioid dependence commonly referred to as Opioid Substitution Therapy or pharmacotherapy.



 



Internal medicine is one of the branches in medicine, which dedicated to the diagnosis and therapeutic treatment of adults. Internal medicine covers an extensive variety of conditions influencing the inner organs of the body - the heart, the lungs, the liver, the kidneys, the cerebrum, the gastro-intestinal tract, the urinary tract, the spinal section, the nerves, the muscles and joints.




  • Oncology


  • Cardiovascular Medicine


  • Respiratory Medicine


  • Endocrinology and Diabetes


  • Allergy, Asthma and Immunology



 



Surgery is one of the branches of medicine that deals with the medication of diseases and other disorders by instrumental and manual means. Surgery includes the management of acute injuries and sicknesses as separated from chronic, gradually advancing diseases, aside from when patients with the latter type of disease must be operated upon. 




  • General Surgery


  • Endocrine Surgery


  • Cardiothoracic Surgery


  • Orthopedic Surgery


  • Transplantation Surgery


  • Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery



 



Health care is the enhancement of wellbeing via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental disorders in human beings. Health care is delivered especially by trained and licensed professionals. It incorporates the work done in giving primary care, secondary care and tertiary care. 




  • Medical Informatics


  • Health Statistics and Health Information Systems


  • Clinical Epidemiology


  • Recent advancements in Healthcare


  • Digital Healthcare


  • Mental and Physical Health



 



A branch of medicine that in general deal with the female human body. Obstetrics and gynecology specializes in the care of women during pregnancy and childbirth and in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the female reproductive organs. 




  • Health Related Behaviors in Women


  • Innovations in Obstetrics and Gynecology


  • Menopause


  • Family Planning


  • Laparoscopic Surgery


  • Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)



 



The Infectious diseases caused by the parasitic microorganisms, these parasitic organisms attach themselves to the body, or to the inside of the body, of another organism. Researchers are presently searching for new ways to treat infectious diseases, focusing on exactly how the pathogens change and drug resistance advances. Critical care medicine or Intensive care medicine incorporates the diagnosis and treatment and management of wide variety of life-threatening conditions in humans.  The critical care specialist might be the essential provider of care.




  • Pediatric Infectious Diseases


  • Bacterial Infectious Diseases


  • Viral Infectious Diseases


  • Fungal Infectious Diseases


  • Tropical Infectious Diseases


  • Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases



 



Public health is the study of ensuring the safety and enhancing the health of groups through training, policy making and research for disease. Public health consolidates the interdisciplinary methodologies of the epidemiology, bio-statistics and health care services. Natural health, group health, behavioral health, psychological health and occupational safety and health are other main sub fields. 




  • Healthcare Associated Diseases


  • Public Health Nursing


  • Patient Safety and Healthcare


  • Occupational Health & Safety


  • Health care and Hospital Management


  • Public Health and Nutrition



The term traditional, complementary and alternative medicine is a most reasonable term to clarify such traditional treatments all around. Traditional medicine is an undefined idea that includes a scope of long-standing and still advancing practices based on diverse beliefs and theories. Health care can broadly be divided into modern medicine and traditional medicine. Many different areas make up the practice of complementary and alternative medicine and this field includes the more mainstream and accepted forms of therapy such as acupuncture, homeopathy, and Oriental practices. 




  • Chinese Medicine


  • Naturopathy


  • Ayurvedic Medicine


  • Holistic Medicine


  • Aroma Therapy


  • Herbal Medicine



The main principle of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation is to improve or restore the functional ability of an individual or quality of life to those with physical disabilities affecting the brain, spinal cord, nerves, bones, joints, ligaments, muscles, and tendons. Physical medicine will give incorporated and multidisciplinary care with a specific goal to recover the entire individual by tending to the individual's physical, therapeutic, professional, and social needs. 




  • Physiotherapy in Treatment & Care


  • Spinal Cord Injury Medicine


  • Physiotherapy and Yoga


  • Pain Medicine


  • Sports Medicine


  • Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine



 



Reproductive medicine and regenerative medicine is one of the rapidly developing branches in the field of medicines. Major reproductive medicine studies today mainly focus on diagnosis and treatment a number of various women’s health problems, such as pregnancy and birth related problems, polycystic ovary syndrome and other infertility issues.




  • Tissue Engineering


  • Stem Cell Therapy


  • Organ and Tissue Regeneration


  • Stem Cell Transplantation


  • Stem Cell Clinical Trials


  • Biomaterials and Bioengineering



 



The overall neuroscience market appraise was regarded at USD 28.42 billion in 2016 and is expected develop at a CAGR of 3.1% over the forecast time frame. High influencing factors, for example, advanced brain mapping research, neuroscience-based research and innovations by government bodies and innovative improvements are expected to push the market development. 




  • Neurophysiology


  • Neuropharmacology


  • Behavioral Neuroscience


  • Spinal Disorders


  • Cognitive Neuroscience


  • Neuropsychology



 




  • Thyroid syndrome


  • sesamoiditis


  • manubriosternal syndrome


  • plantar fasciitis


  • costosternal syndrome


  • coccydynia


  • Pes anserine bursitis


  • flexor carpi ulnaris tendinitis


  • Arachnoiditis